The sql Change Type allows you to specify whatever SQL you want.


sql is useful for complex changes that are not supported through Liquibase automated Change Types such as stored procedures. The SQL contained in sql can be multi-line.

Tip: If you use psql, SQL Plus, or sqlcmd utility and Liquibase Pro, see Use Native Executors with PostgreSQL, Use Native Executors with Oracle Database, and Use Native Executors with Microsoft SQL Server.

Using the SQL Change Type

The <sql> Change Type can also support multi-line statements in the same file. Statements can either be split using a ; at the end of the last line of the SQL or a GO on its own on the line between the statements can be used. Multi-line SQL statements are also supported and only a ; or GO statement will finish a statement, a new line is not enough. Files containing a single statement do not need to use a ; or GO.

The SQL change can also contain comments of either of the following formats:

  • A multi-line comment that starts with /* and ends with */.
  • A single line comment starting with -- and finishing at the end of the line.

Note: By default it will attempt to split statements on a ; or GO at the end of lines. Because of this, if you have a comment or some other non-statement ending ; or GO, don't have it at the end of a line or you will get invalid SQL.

Run sql

To run this Change Type, follow these steps:

  1. Add the Change Type to your changeset, as shown in the examples on this page.
  2. Specify any required attributes. Use the table on this page to see which ones your database requires.
  3. Deploy your changeset by running the update command:
  4. liquibase update


        http://www.liquibase.org/xml/ns/dbchangelog-ext http://www.liquibase.org/xml/ns/dbchangelog/dbchangelog-ext.xsd
        http://www.liquibase.org/xml/ns/pro http://www.liquibase.org/xml/ns/pro/liquibase-pro-latest.xsd">

    <changeSet  author="liquibase-docs"  id="sql-example">
        <sql dbms="!h2, oracle, mysql"
                stripComments="true">insert into person (name) values ('Bob')

-  changeSet:
     id:  sql-example
     author:  liquibase-docs
      -  sql:
          dbms:  '!h2,  oracle,  mysql'
          endDelimiter:  \nGO
          splitStatements:  true
          sql:  insert into person (name) values ('Bob')
          stripComments:  true
    "databaseChangeLog": [
            "databaseChangeLog": [
                    "changeSet": {
                        "id": "sql-example",
                        "author": "liquibase-docs",
                        "changes": [
                                "sql": {
                                    "dbms": "!h2, oracle, mysql",
                                    "endDelimiter": "GO",
                                    "splitStatements": true,
                                    "sql": "insert into person (name) values ('Bob')",
                                    "stripComments": true

Currently, there is no SQL example for the <sql> tag, since you can just put SQL into a SQL formatted changelog.

Available attributes

Name Description Required for Supports Since

Specifies which database type(s) a changeset is to be used for. See valid database type names on Liquibase Database Tutorials. Separate multiple databases with commas. Specify that a changeset is not applicable to a particular database type by prefixing with !. The keywords all and none are also available.

all 3.0

Specifies delimiter to apply to the end of the statement. Your delimiter string can be a combination of one or more letters, symbols, and/or numbers, or the empty string (""). Default: ";".

Tip: It is a best practice not to use endDelimiter on changesets you are running with a native executor. Native executors handle delimiters natively.


Removes Liquibase split statements on ;'s and GO's when it is set to false. Default: true.

Tip: It is a best practice not to use splitStatements=true on changesets you are running with a native executor. Native executors handle statement splitting natively.

sql Specifies the SQL to execute. all all

When true, removes any comments in the statement before executing. Otherwise, set it to false. Default: true.


Database support

Database Notes Auto Rollback
DB2/LUW Supported No
DB2/z Supported No
Derby Supported No
Firebird Supported No
H2 Supported No
HyperSQL Supported No
INGRES Supported No
Informix Supported No
MariaDB Supported No
MySQL Supported No
Oracle Supported No
PostgreSQL Supported No
Snowflake Supported No
SQL Server Supported No
SQLite Supported No
Sybase Supported No
Sybase Anywhere Supported No

Related links