Using Liquibase with MariaDB, SkySQL, or MariaDB AWS RDS

MariaDB delivers operational agility with key enterprise features, including real ACID compliance and full SQL. It provides two solutions:

  • MariaDB Platform, which includes an open-source database solution—MariaDB Server along with ColumnStore and MaxScale.

    Note: MariaDB Xpand is not currently supported.

  • MariaDB Cloud (or MariaDB SkySQL), which is a cloud database service (DBaaS) that delivers MariaDB Platform on the expert-maintained cloud infrastructure from MariaDB Corporation.

You can also use MariaDB on Amazon RDS. For more information about MariaDB, see the MariaDB Knowledge Base.

Verified versions

  • 10.6
  • 10.5
  • 10.4
  • 10.3
  • 10.2

Verification level

Note: A database's verification level indicates how well it works with different features in Liquibase and across different products, such as Liquibase Open Source and Liquibase Pro. For more information, see Database Verification Levels.

MariaDB Server, AWS RDS – MariaDB

Advanced: Database has been tested and validated to deliver a minimum set of advanced capabilities around database inspection, support for long-running operations, as well as the Foundational level's basic functionality of change management and change tracking aligned with the database. The advanced database inspection capabilities include the ability to generate changelogs in at least one format and the support of at least two additional state-based commands (snapshots, diffs, etc). The Liquibase customer support team provides how-to/usage support around verified capabilities for commercial customers.

MariaDB SkySQL

Contributed: Database has not yet met one or several of the requirements around maintainer contact with Liquibase, documentation, or verified functionality to achieve the Foundational designation. Not supported by the Liquibase support team. Best-effort support is provided through our community forums.

Prerequisites

  1. Introduction to Liquibase – Dive into Liquibase concepts.
  2. Install Liquibase – Download Liquibase on your machine.
  3. Get Started with Liquibase – Learn how to use Liquibase with an example database.
  4. Design Your Liquibase Project – Create a new Liquibase project folder and organize your changelogs
  5. How to Apply Your Liquibase Pro License Key – If you use Liquibase Pro, activate your license.

Warning: If you create the Liquibase properties file, do not name it mariadb.properties. This file name conflicts with a properties file that is released with the MariaDB driver.

Install drivers

To use Liquibase and MariaDB, you need the JDBC driver JAR file (Maven download).

The latest version of Liquibase has a pre-installed driver for this database in the liquibase/internal/lib directory, so you don't need to install it yourself.

If you use Maven, you must instead include the driver JAR as a dependency in your pom.xml file.

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.mariadb.jdbc</groupId>
    <artifactId>mariadb-java-client</artifactId>
    <version>3.0.6</version>
</dependency>

Test your connection

  1. Ensure your MariaDB is configured:
  2. Specify the database URL in the liquibase.properties file (defaults file), along with other properties you want to set a default value for. Liquibase does not parse the URL. You can either specify the full database connection string or specify the URL using your database's standard JDBC format:
  3. Tip: To apply a Liquibase Pro key to your project, add the following property to the Liquibase properties file: licenseKey: <paste code here>

  1. Create a text file called changelog (.xml) in your project directory and add a changeset.

    If you already created a changelog using the init project command, you can use that instead of creating a new file. When adding onto an existing changelog, be sure to only add the changeset and to not duplicate the changelog header.

  2. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <databaseChangeLog
        xmlns="http://www.liquibase.org/xml/ns/dbchangelog"
        xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
        xmlns:ext="http://www.liquibase.org/xml/ns/dbchangelog-ext"
        xmlns:pro="http://www.liquibase.org/xml/ns/pro"
        xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.liquibase.org/xml/ns/dbchangelog
            http://www.liquibase.org/xml/ns/dbchangelog/dbchangelog-latest.xsd
            http://www.liquibase.org/xml/ns/dbchangelog-ext http://www.liquibase.org/xml/ns/dbchangelog/dbchangelog-ext.xsd
            http://www.liquibase.org/xml/ns/pro http://www.liquibase.org/xml/ns/pro/liquibase-pro-latest.xsd">
    
        <changeSet id="1" author="Liquibase">
            <createTable tableName="test_table">
                <column name="test_id" type="int">
                    <constraints primaryKey="true"/>
                </column>
                <column name="test_column" type="varchar"/>
            </createTable>
        </changeSet>
    
    </databaseChangeLog>
    --liquibase formatted sql
    
    --changeset liquibase:1
    CREATE TABLE test_table (test_id INT, test_column VARCHAR(255), PRIMARY KEY (test_id))

    Tip: Formatted SQL changelogs generated from Liquibase versions before 4.2 might cause issues because of the lack of space after a double dash ( -- ). To fix this, add a space after the double dash. For example: -- liquibase formatted sql instead of --liquibase formatted sql and -- changeset myname:create-table instead of --changeset myname:create-table.

    databaseChangeLog:
       - changeSet:
           id: 1
           author: Liquibase
           changes:
           - createTable:
               tableName: test_table
               columns:
               - column:
                   name: test_column
                   type: INT
                   constraints:
                       primaryKey:  true
                       nullable:  false
    {
      "databaseChangeLog": [
        {
          "changeSet": {
            "id": "1",
            "author": "Liquibase",
            "changes": [
              {
                "createTable": {
                  "tableName": "test_table",
                  "columns": [
                    {
                      "column": {
                        "name": "test_column",
                        "type": "INT",
                        "constraints": {
                          "primaryKey": true,
                          "nullable": false
                        }
                      }
                    }
                  ]
                }
              }
            ]
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  3. Navigate to your project folder in the CLI and run the Liquibase status command to see whether the connection is successful:
  4. liquibase status --username=test --password=test --changelog-file=<changelog.xml>

    Note: You can specify arguments in the CLI or keep them in the Liquibase properties file.

    If your connection is successful, you'll see a message like this:

    4 changesets have not been applied to <your_jdbc_url>
    Liquibase command 'status' was executed successfully.
  5. Inspect the deployment SQL with the update-sql command:
  6. liquibase update-sql --changelog-file=<changelog.xml>
  7. Then make changes to your database with the update command:
  8. liquibase update --changelog-file=<changelog.xml>

    If your update is successful, Liquibase runs each changeset and displays a summary message ending with:

    Liquibase: Update has been successful.
    Liquibase command 'update' was executed successfully.
  9. From a database UI tool, ensure that your database contains the test_table object you added along with the DATABASECHANGELOG table and DATABASECHANGELOGLOCK table.

Now you're ready to start making deployments with Liquibase!

MariaDB Server

  • Check the status of the database by running the SHOW [GLOBAL | SESSION] STATUS command.
  • Specify the database URL in the Liquibase properties file, as follows:
  • url: jdbc:mariadb://<host>:<port>/<dbname>

MariaDB SkySQL

  • Check the connection by referring to the Client Instructions. To connect to MariaDB SkySQL, you need to whitelist your IP, choose a client and a database, and use service details as the connection information.
  • Download the skysql_chain.pem certificate. Go to your MariaDB SkySQL account and select Your Services > Show Credentials > Certificate authority chain > Download. Place the certificate in your Liquibase project folder.
  • Specify the database URL in the liquibase.properties file as follows:
  • url: jdbc:mariadb://<host>:<port>/<dbname>?useSSL=true&serverSslCert=skysql_chain.pem

    You can find the needed host name under Connect using MariaDB CLI by selecting Your Services > Show Credentials:

    Example: url:jdbc:mariadb://sky0001680.mdb0001652.db.skysql.net:5001/myDatabase?useSSL=true&serverSslCert=skysql_chain.pem

MariaDB on AWS RDS

  • Check the connection by using the mysql utility and running the following:
  • mysql -h <endpoint> -P 3306 -u <mymainuser> -p

    Note: The alternative way is to connect with the SSL certificate.

    You can find the connection information in the AWS Management Console:

    1. Open the Amazon RDS console
    2. Select Databases and choose the needed database
    3. Select Connectivity & security. You will see all information under Endpoint & Port.

    To find the connection information using the AWS CLI and RDS API, refer to the Connecting to a DB instance running the MariaDB database engine documentation.

  • Specify the database URL in the Liquibase properties file, as follows:
  • url: jdbc:mariadb://<endpoint>:<port>/<dbname>

    Example: url:jdbc:mariadb://myrds.cz1j1vh9uvuo.us-east-1.rds.amazonaws.com:3306/mydatabase

Related links